Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Medical Sciences Styles
In the field of medical research, scholars can choose between either the American Medical Association's Manual of Style or the National Library of Medicine's Style Manuel, 2nd Edition.
The reference style followed by JAMA and its related journals was developed from recommendations contained in the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (formerly known as the Vancouver style) and the National Library of Medicine's recommendations found in Citing Medicine:The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.
Citing Medicine, 2nd edition provides assistance to authors in compiling lists of references for their publications, to editors in revising such lists, to publishers in setting reference standards for their authors and editors, and to librarians and others in formatting bibliographic citations.
American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style
For in-text citations, the AMA style uses a superscript Arabic numeral that follows after the resource material being referenced. When the same resource material is referenced in a paper, the same numeral will be used.
For the Reference list will follow this general format: Author Last name, First Initial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; Issue#: PP-PP.
General formatting guidelines: Spacing: Double space. Margins: 1" . Font: Size 12, any font type. AMA suggests two typefaces (a serif for body text and a sans serif for titles and subheads) with appropriate use of styles, such as bold and italics for a scholarly publication. Indents: 1/2". Page numbering: Each page, beginning with the title page, should be numbered consecutively. Page numbers are usually placed in the upper right corner. References: Reference entries should be listed and numbered in the order they were cited in your paper. If the citation extends to a second line, do NOT indent (as in APA).
National Library of Medicine Style Manual
The NLM Style manual provides detailed information for the formatting of references used in a paper. It does not have a specific format for in-text citations.
NLM Style - In-Text Formatting Guidelines
The Norris Medical Library created a useful libguide for the formatting of in-text citations using the NLM's style format.